Radiocarbon dating in memphis egypt

Egyptian hieroglyphs were fully developed by then, and their shapes would be used with little change for more than three thousand years.

Large tombs of pharaohs at Abydos and Naqada, in addition to cemeteries at Saqqara and Helwan near Memphis, reveal structures built largely of wood and mud bricks, with some small use of stone for walls and floors.

Stone was used in quantity for the manufacture of ornaments, vessels, and occasionally, for statues.

Tamarix ("tamarisk" or "salt cedar") was used to build boats such as the Abydos boats.

One of the most important indigenous woodworking techniques was the fixed mortise and tenon joint.

A fixed tenon was made by shaping the end of one timber to fit into a mortise (hole) that is cut into a second timber.

A variation of this joint using a free tenon eventually became one of the most important features in Mediterranean and Egyptian shipbuilding.

The date of this period is subject to scholarly debate about the Egyptian chronology.It falls within the early Bronze Age and is variously estimated to have begun anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC.In a 2013 study based on radiocarbon dates, the beginning of the First Dynasty - the accession of Hor-Aha - was placed close to 3100 BCE (3218–3035, with 95% confidence).Information about this dynasty is derived from a few monuments and other objects bearing royal names, the most important being the Narmer Palette and Narmer Macehead, as well as Den and Qa'a king lists.No detailed records of the first two dynasties have survived, except for the terse lists on the Palermo Stone.

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